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Community Nutrition in Action An Entrepreneurial Approach 7th Edition Test Bank By Boyle

Instant download Community Nutrition in Action An Entrepreneurial Approach 7th Edition Test Bank By Boyle. You don’t have to wait as you’ll be able to download the files immediately after placing your order. All chapters are included with all the questions and correct answers. Get the Community Nutrition in Action An Entrepreneurial Approach 7th Edition Test Bank By Boyle today and start getting better grades.

True / False

 

1. ​Epidemiology is the basic science of public health.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. Within the field of epidemiology, the term distribution refers to the relationship between the health problem or disease and the treatment options available.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. Factors such as race, age, sex, and a person’s physiological state are all considered determinants of disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

4. Vital statistics are figures pertaining to risk and development of disease and illness.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. Crude birth and death rates are not useful for comparisons because population characteristics may differ greatly, particularly with respect to age.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. Prenatal exposure to alcohol is one of the leading preventable causes of mental retardation in the United States.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. Epidemiologic methodology can be used to determine whether syndromes are related to each other or represent distinct conditions.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. A single individual with a confirmed diagnosis of a disease is classified as a case.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. In a study on liver cancer, subjects with a high fat intake had a relative risk of 2.15, meaning they have double the risk of developing liver cancer than those with a low intake of fat.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. The prevalence of a disease is the number of new cases of a disease during a specific time period in a defined population.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.3 – Explain prevalence rates and how they differ from incidence rates.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

11. The rate of incidence of a disease is best measured using a cross-sectional study.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.3 – Explain prevalence rates and how they differ from incidence rates.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. A cohort is a well-defined group of people who are studied over a period of time to determine their incidence of disease, injury, or death.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. The first step of the scientific method is hypothesis development and prediction.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. A scientific study in which participants self-selected involvement would likely show error due to selection bias. ​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. A confounding factor is a “hidden” factor or characteristic that may cause an association that the researchers attribute to other factors.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. An important principle of the scientific method is that most research generates new questions, not final answers.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Prospective cohort studies use existing longitudinal data to look back for a temporal relationship between exposure factors and outcome development.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. An ecological study focuses on groups of people and examines the relationship between exposure and disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. In an experimental study, investigators examine preventions and treatments for diseases by actively manipulating which groups receive the agent under study.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. The investigation of the correlation between fish consumption and breast cancer incidence in humans is an example of a correlation study.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. Cross-sectional studies examine the relationships among dietary intake, diseases, and other variables as they exist in a population at a particular time.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. A disadvantage of a case-control study is the need to study large numbers of subjects.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. A randomized clinical trial conducted as a double-blind experiment is the most rigorous evaluation of a dietary hypothesis.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. Case control studies are useful when rare diseases or diseases with long latency periods are being studied.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. One of the first applications of epidemiology to nutrition science was Lind’s controlled trial investigating the curative effects of citrus fruits on sailors with scurvy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. ​Nutritional epidemiology today is primarily concerned with the major chronic diseases of the Western world.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. The complexity and variability of our diets makes it challenging to the study of the relationship of diet to disease.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. Food balance sheets measure the food actually ingested by a population.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. Dietary recalls are considered the best method of assessing dietary intake for individuals.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. Interpreting epidemiologic data involves evaluating the criterion for a causal association and assessing for the presence of bias and the contribution of chance.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   Epidemiology and the Community Nutritionist
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

31. ​The discipline of epidemiology has expanded from its origin as the study of epidemics to include ____.

  a. ​the health and wellness of individuals
  b. ​medicine
  c. ​laboratory science
  d. ​health problems of populations

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

32. In the context of epidemiology, the term ____ refers to the causes and factors that affect the risk of disease.​

  a. ​distribution
  b. ​determinants
  c. ​host factors
  d. ​incidence

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

33. In the 1990s, epidemiologic studies established that women could reduce their risk of bearing a child with neural tube birth defects by increasing their intake of ____.​

  a. ​vitamin B
  b. ​vitamin C
  c. ​folic acid
  d. ​ascorbic acid

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

34. Over the past decade, epidemiologic data have been used to develop ____ methods for identifying women at high risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). ​

  a. ​surveillance
  b. ​pervasive
  c. ​intervention
  d. ​determinant

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

35. ​Prenatal exposure to ____ is one of the leading preventable causes of mental retardation in the United States.

  a. ​nicotine
  b. ​alcohol
  c. ​cocaine
  d. ​marijuana

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

36. Which of the following is not considered a vital statistic?​

  a. ​cause-specific death rate
  b. ​fetal death rate
  c. ​infant mortality rate
  d. ​drug-usage rate

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. To an epidemiologist studying factors that contribute to diabetes, an individual with a confirmed case of diabetes is a(n) ____.​

  a. ​incidence
  b. ​prevalence
  c. ​case
  d. ​risk factor

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.3 – Explain prevalence rates and how they differ from incidence rates.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. An epidemiologic study evaluated the relationship between caffeine and developing high blood pressure. The relative risk of the group drinking five caffeinated drinks a day in comparison to the group drinking no caffeinated drinks a day was 0.99. This means that if a person drinks five caffeinated drinks a day, he or she ____.​

  a. ​has a 99 percent chance of developing high blood pressure
  b. ​has a 99 percent chance of NOT developing high blood pressure
  c. ​is not at increased risk of high blood pressure
  d. ​will almost certainly develop particularly severe high blood pressure

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. Which characteristic is associated with the incidence rate of disease development?​

  a. ​All cases in a single survey are counted.
  b. ​It is measured in a single point in time.
  c. ​All individuals are examined including cases and non-cases.
  d. ​It is measured most efficiently in a cohort study.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.3 – Explain prevalence rates and how they differ from incidence rates.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Which risk factor for heart disease cannot be changed by lifestyle modifications?​

  a. ​genetics
  b. ​obesity
  c. ​high blood pressure
  d. ​physical activity

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Which step of the scientific method occurs immediately after the identification of the problem?​

  a. ​experimental design
  b. ​data collection
  c. ​hypothesis formulation
  d. ​theory development

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

42. ​During statistical analysis, the investigator may consider searching for statistical associations among various groups that may suggest a cause–effect relationship, without having generated prior hypotheses about these groups. This is known as ____.

  a. ​selection bias
  b. ​data dredging
  c. ​measurement testing
  d. ​confounding bias

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

43. _____ bias is the presence of another variable that accounts for an observation.

  a. ​Confounding
  b. ​Measurement
  c. ​Selection
  d. ​Control

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

44. One of the first large population studies to examine the relationship between blood cholesterol levels and risk of CHD was the Seven Countries Study. This study is an example of ____.​

  a. ​observing
  b. ​counting cases
  c. ​relating cases to the population at rise
  d. ​making comparisons

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

45.  _____ bias may occur if study participants are not picked randomly from the population of interest.​

  a. ​Confounding
  b. ​Measurement
  c. ​Sample
  d. ​Selection

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. In a(n) ____ trial, subjects are assigned to intervention alternatives by a method that is not random.​

  a. ​observational
  b. ​cross-sectional
  c. ​trend
  d. ​nonrandomized controlled

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. In a(n) ____ study, exposure factors and outcomes are observed or measured at a single point in time in a sample from the population being studied.​

  a. ​cross-sectional
  b. ​experimental
  c. ​randomized controlled
  d. ​cohort

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. In a(n) ____ study, groups of people are studied to examine the relationship between exposure and disease.​

  a. ​trend
  b. ​ecological
  c. cohort​
  d. ​case-control

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. In a(n) ____ study, systematic, quantitative methods are used to combine the results of all relevant studies to produce an overall estimate.​

  a. ​trend
  b. ​experimental
  c. ​non-biased
  d. ​meta-analysis

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. An investigation of the correlation between consumption of genetically modified corn and colon cancer incidence and mortality rates in humans is an example of a(n) ____ study.​

  a. ​observational
  b. ​ecological
  c. ​experimental
  d. ​meta-analysis

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. A study that follows a group of individuals free of the disease or condition of interest into the future is an example of a(n) ____ study.​

  a. ​retrospective cohort
  b. ​prospective cohort
  c. ​retrospective cross-sectional
  d. ​prospective cross-sectional

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. The most appropriate use of a correlational study is to ____.​

  a. ​generate hypotheses
  b. ​draw conclusions
  c. ​change public policy
  d. ​validate previous studies

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​The major objective of the Nurse’s Health Study I was to ____.

  a. ​investigate the development of cardiovascular disease
  b. ​prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes
  c. ​investigate diets and lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease in women
  d. ​evaluate men’s health and fitness to incidence of serious illness

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. ​Nutritional epidemiology ____.

  a. ​is a fairly new area of study
  b. ​focuses on the role of Western diet and chronic disease
  c. ​always utilizes controlled, clinical trial protocols
  d. ​currently focuses on deficiency diseases

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. ​A single 24-hour dietary recall ____.

  a. ​is considered the best method of assessing dietary intake
  b. ​uses a questionnaire to assess nutrient intake
  c. ​requires the subject to make judgments about their usual food habits
  d. ​may not give an adequate picture of a specific individual’s usual intake

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. The ____ method of assessing intake is time consuming, and the results may not be accurate if subjects modify their eating habits during the time of the study.​

  a. ​twenty-four-hour recall
  b. ​food record
  c. ​food frequency
  d. ​diet history

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

57. ​Food ____ measure the food available for consumption from imports and domestic food production minus the food through exports, waste, or spoilage.

  a. ​records
  b. ​histories
  c. ​balance sheets
  d. ​questionnaires

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

58. In Basiotis et al.’s year-long food intake study, which food component required the largest number of days of food intake records to yield a “true” average intake?​

  a. ​food energy
  b. ​carbohydrates
  c. ​iron
  d. ​vitamin A

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

59. Methods of assessing household food consumption include ____.​

  a. ​records of food wasted, spoiled, or fed to pets
  b. ​records of number of meals eaten at home or away from the home
  c. ​per capita export data
  d. ​food disappearance data

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.5 – Explain why the day-to-day variation in an individual’s nutrient intake can have important implications for nutritional epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

60. When evaluating epidemiological data, plausibility refers to the ____.

  a. ​consistency of the association with other knowledge
  b. ​similarity of findings with other studies
  c. ​likelihood of a casual association
  d. ​chronology of exposure and disease onset

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   Epidemiology and the Community Nutritionist
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Matching

 

Match the advantage or disadvantage in the left column with its correct type of study. Items will be used more than once.​

a. ​case-control study
b. ​cohort study

 

REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

61. ​Relies on recall or existing records about past exposures

ANSWER:   a

 

62. Difficult to select suitable comparison group​

ANSWER:   a

 

63. Can calculate and compare rates in exposed and unexposed​

ANSWER:   b

 

64. Need to study large numbers of individuals and which may take years to accomplish​

ANSWER:   b

 

65. Relatively quick and inexpensive as it requires relatively few subjects​

ANSWER:   a

 

66. May provide incomplete data from subject loss to follow-up​

ANSWER:   b

 

​Match the step in the scientific method in the left column with its correct description in the right column.

a. ​experiment
b. ​hypothesis & prediction
c. ​observation & question
d. ​results & interpretations
e. ​theory

 

REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

67. ​The problem is identified.

ANSWER:   c

 

68. A tentative solution to the problem is formulated.​

ANSWER:   b

 

69. A study is designed and conducted to collect relevant data.​

ANSWER:   a

 

70.  Conclusions are drawn based on collected data.​

ANSWER:   d

 

71. Conclusions of studies that support the hypothesis are integrated.​

ANSWER:   e

 

Match the definitions in the left column with the appropriate terms in the right column.​

a. ​risk
b. confounding factor
c. ​prevalence
d. ​determinants
e. ​case
f. ​cohort
g. ​incidence
h. ​case-control study
i. ​vital statistics
j. ​food balance sheets

 

REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.3 – Explain prevalence rates and how they differ from incidence rates.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

72. ​The number of existing cases of a disease in a given population

ANSWER:   c

 

73. The number of new cases of a disease during a specific time period in a defined population​

ANSWER:   g

 

Match the definitions in the left column with the appropriate terms in the right column.​

a. ​risk
b. confounding factor
c. ​prevalence
d. ​determinants
e. ​case
f. ​cohort
g. ​incidence
h. ​case-control study
i. ​vital statistics
j. ​food balance sheets

 

REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

74. A well-defined group of people who are studied over a period of time

ANSWER:   f

 

75. A type of observational analytic study

ANSWER:   h

 

76. ​A “hidden” characteristic that is distributed differently in the study and control groups that may cause an association that the researchers attribute to other factors

ANSWER:   b

 

Match the definitions in the left column with the appropriate terms in the right column.​

a. ​risk
b. confounding factor
c. ​prevalence
d. ​determinants
e. ​case
f. ​cohort
g. ​incidence
h. ​case-control study
i. ​vital statistics
j. ​food balance sheets

 

REFERENCES:   Nutritional Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.6 – List the advantages and disadvantages of various dietary assessment methods.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

77. National accounts of the annual production of food, changes in stocks, imports/exports, and food distribution

ANSWER:   j

 

Match the definitions in the left column with the appropriate terms in the right column.​

a. ​risk
b. confounding factor
c. ​prevalence
d. ​determinants
e. ​case
f. ​cohort
g. ​incidence
h. ​case-control study
i. ​vital statistics
j. ​food balance sheets

 

REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.2 – Describe various vital statistics used by epidemiologists to monitor a population’s health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

78. The probability that people will acquire a disease

ANSWER:   a

 

79. ​Figures pertaining to certain life events

ANSWER:   i

 

80. ​A particular instance of a disease or outcome of interest

ANSWER:   e

 

Match the definitions in the left column with the appropriate terms in the right column.​

a. ​risk
b. confounding factor
c. ​prevalence
d. ​determinants
e. ​case
f. ​cohort
g. ​incidence
h. ​case-control study
i. ​vital statistics
j. ​food balance sheets

 

REFERENCES:   The Practice of Epidemiology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.1 – Define epidemiology.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

81. Causes and factors that affect the risk of disease

ANSWER:   d

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

82. List different controllable and non-controllable risk factors of heart disease.​

ANSWER:   Controllable risk factors include high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, obesity, an atherogenic diet, and stress. Non-controllable risk factors include age, gender, and genetics.​
REFERENCES:   Basic Epidemiologic Concepts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.2 – Describe various vital statistics used by epidemiologists to monitor a population’s health status.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

83. List the steps of the scientific method in order.​

ANSWER:   Observation and question; hypothesis and prediction; experiment; results and interpretation; support or rejection of hypothesis; and formation of theory, if hypothesis was supported, or development of new questions/hypotheses, if hypothesis was not supported.​
REFERENCES:   Types of Epidemiologic Studies
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   CNIA.BOYL.17.2.4 – Describe the strengths and weaknesses of various types of epidemiologic studies.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

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