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Developing Person Through the Life Span 10th Edition Test Bank by Berger

Download Developing Person Through the Life Span 10th Edition Test Bank by Berger. This test bank will help you pass your exams because this test bank contains all possible test questions and correct answers for each chapter. Check out the sample chapter below:

 

1. An explanation of facts and observations defined by a set of concepts and ideas that organize phenomena is called a “_____.”
  A) hypothesis
  B) theory
  C) conclusion
  D) development

 

 

2. A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change over time is called a “_____.”
  A) hypothesis
  B) developmental theory
  C) conclusion
  D) stage

 

 

3. Theories can do all the following EXCEPT _____.
  A) produce hypotheses
  B) solve developmental problems
  C) generate discoveries
  D) offer practical guidance

 

 

4. In class, Sam learned that some theorists link happiness to productivity. From this, he developed the idea that happy employees in a factory will produce more products per hour. In this example, Sam’s theory led him to _____.
  A) produce a hypothesis
  B) solve a developmental problem
  C) generate a discovery
  D) gain practical guidance

 

 

5. Hannah theorized that sleep helps people behave in safer ways. She tested her theory by conducting an experiment. She manipulated the amount of sleep participants got and then tested their driving ability. Hannah learned that participants who got more sleep were safer drivers. In this example, Hannah’s theory led her to _____.
  A) replicate research
  B) solve a developmental problem
  C) generate a discovery
  D) change the behavior of many people

 

 

6. Lilly’s 12-year-old son used to get out of bed easily and early on school days, but lately he has been hard to wake. While reading a parenting book, Lilly came across the theory of “delayed phase of preference,” which states that sleep patterns shift when young people start to go through puberty. In this example, a theory helped Lilly _____.
  A) design an experiment
  B) change her own behavior
  C) generate a discovery
  D) gain practical guidance

 

 

7. A _____ is an average or usual event or experience.
  A) norm
  B) theory
  C) hypothesis
  D) median

 

 

8. The term norm communicates _____.
  A) a common behavior that results from biological or social pressure
  B) the presence and severity of atypical behavior
  C) that some behaviors are more desirable than others
  D) that individual differences in behavior may result from cognitive or social deficits

 

 

9. In the United States, the legal age for drinking alcohol is 21 years. Thus, age 21 represents a(n) _____.
  A) median
  B) norm
  C) hypothesis
  D) estimate

 

 

10. Which of the following statements about norms is correct?
  A) A norm always represents a usual practice within a culture.
  B) Norms tend to highlight deficits in development rather than strengths.
  C) The terms “theories,” “norms,” and “facts” are used interchangeably.
  D) Sometimes a norm in an expected behavior, even if it is not the usual practice.

 

 

11. _____ is a theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background.
  A) Humanism
  B) Behaviorism
  C) Information processing
  D) Ecology

 

 

12. In the first half of the twentieth century, which two opposing theories dominated the discipline of psychology?
  A) humanism and cognitive theory
  B) behaviorism and sociocultural theory
  C) psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism
  D) cognitive theory and sociocultural theory

 

 

13. Psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory are considered “grand” because they are _____.
  A) comprehensive, enduring, and widely applied
  B) comprehensive, well developed, and universally correct
  C) enduring, widely applied, and universally correct
  D) comprehensive, widely applied, and unchallenged

 

 

14. The foundation of psychoanalytic theory is _____.
  A) observable behaviors
  B) inner drives, motives, and unconscious needs
  C) an individual’s ideas and beliefs
  D) self-awareness and willingness to change

 

 

15. Psychoanalytic theory originated with _____.
  A) Piaget
  B) Freud
  C) Watson
  D) Erikson

 

 

16. _____ emphasizes unconscious drives and early experiences with respect to development, whereas _____ emphasizes learning by association, reinforcement, or observation with respect to development.
  A) Psychoanalytic theory; behaviorism
  B) Psychoanalytic theory; cognitive theory
  C) Behaviorism; psychoanalytic theory
  D) Cognitive theory; psychoanalytic theory

 

 

17. _____ emphasizes unconscious drives and early experiences with respect to development, whereas _____ emphasizes learning by understanding how a person thinks.
  A) Psychoanalytic theory; behaviorism
  B) Psychoanalytic theory; cognitive theory
  C) Behaviorism; psychoanalytic theory
  D) Cognitive theory; psychoanalytic theory

 

 

18. Which is the correct order of the stages of Freud’s psychosexual theory, beginning with infancy and ending with adolescence?
  A) oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency
  B) anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency
  C) oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  D) latency, phallic, oral, anal, genital

 

 

19. Each stage of Freud’s psychosexual theory of development is characterized by a conflict associated with different parts of the body. According to Freud, how people experience and resolve each conflict influences personality _____.
  A) throughout life, because early years provide the foundation of adult behavior
  B) throughout life, only if some of the conflicts are successfully resolved
  C) only in childhood, with new conflicts emerging later that shape adult identity
  D) at a particular stage of development, also called a sensitive period

 

 

20. According to Freud’s psychosexual theory, the _____ stage centers around breastfeeding and weaning.
  A) oral
  B) anal
  C) phallic
  D) genital

 

 

21. Freud argued that the goal of a healthy life is to _____.
  A) connect spiritually with another person
  B) follow moral codes set by society
  C) avoid conflict and promote social harmony
  D) love and to work

 

 

22. Although many of the theorists who follow Freud’s psychoanalytic theory have modified and expanded his ideas, they agree on the importance of _____.
  A) early childhood experiences and psychosexual conflicts
  B) psychosexual conflicts and the unconscious
  C) early childhood experiences and the unconscious
  D) psychosexual conflicts and stages of psychosexual development

 

 

23. Unlike Freud, Erikson _____.
  A) only described development in childhood
  B) believed that adult problems reflect childhood conflicts
  C) emphasized family and culture in his stages
  D) leaned toward the behaviorist perspective

 

 

24. Which psychoanalytic theorist identified unique stages of development from birth through late adulthood?
  A) Freud
  B) Piaget
  C) Skinner
  D) Erikson

 

 

25. Within Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, each of the developmental stages is characterized by a particular challenge, or a _____.
  A) conflict negotiation
  B) developmental conflict
  C) developmental crisis
  D) resolution

 

 

26. Which of Erikson’s stages did he regard as particularly crucial for later development?
  A) initiative versus guilt
  B) intimacy versus isolation
  C) trust versus mistrust
  D) autonomy versus shame and doubt

 

 

27. Behaviorists believe that psychologists should focus on _____.
  A) observable behaviors
  B) inner drives and motives
  C) a person’s ideas and beliefs
  D) a person’s sexual conflict

 

 

28. Behaviorism has also been referred to as “_____ theory.”
  A) conditioning
  B) learning
  C) modeling
  D) operant

 

 

29. The process by which a response becomes linked to a particular stimulus is called “_____.”
  A) psychoanalysis
  B) cognition
  C) observational learning
  D) conditioning

 

 

30. Pavlov’s experiments with dogs that salivated when they heard a specific noise without the presence of food provide an example of _____.
  A) classical conditioning
  B) observational learning
  C) operant conditioning
  D) reinforcement

 

 

31. When a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually responding to the neutral stimulus in the same way as to the meaningful one, he or she is exhibiting _____.
  A) classical conditioning
  B) observational learning
  C) operant conditioning
  D) modeling

 

 

32. A balloon popped and made Bobby cry. It happened again when he was at a friend’s birthday party. Now when Bobby sees a balloon, he starts to cry. According to the behaviorist perspective, Bobby cries in response to the balloon because of _____.
  A) operant conditioning
  B) observational learning
  C) classical conditioning
  D) modeling

 

 

33. The type of conditioning that Skinner identified is referred to as “_____ conditioning.”
  A) classical
  B) observational
  C) operant
  D) cognitive

 

 

34. Operant conditioning is also referred to as “_____ conditioning.”
  A) classical
  B) instrumental
  C) observational
  D) reinforcement

 

 

35. Dominique, age 14, dislikes school. Her parents were recently informed that Dominique has missed 12 days of school this quarter and has left school early on at least four occasions. Dominique’s father has decided to drop his daughter off every morning and pick her up every afternoon to make sure she is attending school. Dominique is now attending school, but she has gotten into serious trouble on multiple occasions, leading to a five-day out-of-school suspension. Since Dominique dislikes school and prefers to skip rather than attend, the out-of-school suspension represents a _____.
  A) reinforcement
  B) punishment
  C) conditioner
  D) norm

 

 

36. The boss praises his hourly employees for their good work. The boss hopes that the praise encourages the employees to continue to work hard. In this example, the reinforcement is _____.
  A) the boss’s praise
  B) worker productivity
  C) the boss
  D) an hourly wage

 

 

37. Any consequence that follows a behavior and makes a person likely to repeat that behavior is called a(n) “_____.
  A) punishment”
  B) condition
  C) reinforcement
  D) observation

 

 

38. Theorists who promote classical conditioning believe that learned behavior is the result of _____, whereas theorists who promote operant conditioning believe that learned behavior is the result of _____.
  A) the association between one stimulus and another; past reinforcement
  B) past reinforcement; the association between one stimulus and another
  C) observing another person’s actions; past reinforcement
  D) the association between one stimulus and another; observing another person’s actions

 

 

39. Social learning theory indicates that learning occurs from _____.
  A) the association between one stimulus and another
  B) past reinforcement
  C) observing and imitating others
  D) responding to a particular stimulus

 

 

40. A person observes the actions of others and copies them. Social learning theorists would call this an example of “_____.”
  A) classical conditioning
  B) operant conditioning
  C) modeling
  D) cognition

 

 

41. Observational learning is also called “_____.”
  A) classical conditioning
  B) operant conditioning
  C) modeling
  D) cognition

 

 

42. Jimmy watches his friend kick a soccer ball into the goal. Later that day, Jimmy finds a soccer ball and proceeds to kick it into the goal. Jimmy most likely engaged in the same behavior as his friend due to _____.
  A) classical conditioning
  B) modeling
  C) operant conditioning
  D) reinforcement

 

 

43. The modeling of behavior is more likely to occur when the model is all the following EXCEPT _____.
  A) younger
  B) admired
  C) powerful
  D) nurturing

 

 

44. According to the text, social learning is particularly noticeable in _____.
  A) infancy
  B) early adolescence
  C) late adolescence
  D) early adulthood

 

 

45. The foundation of cognitive theory is _____.
  A) observable behaviors
  B) inner drives and motives
  C) a person’s thoughts and expectations
  D) cultural influence

 

 

46. _____ was a cognitive theorist.
  A) Freud
  B) Watson
  C) Piaget
  D) Vygotsky

 

 

47. With regard to cognitive development, Piaget argued that _____ is more revealing than _____.
  A) what children know; how they think
  B) how children think; what they know
  C) the cultural context; what children know
  D) what children know; their cultural context

 

 

48. Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development, in order, are _____.
  A) formal operational, concrete operational, preoperational, and sensorimotor
  B) preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, and concrete operational
  C) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
  D) sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, and concrete operational

 

 

49. According to Piaget, intellectual advancement occurs because of cognitive _____.
  A) learning
  B) resolution
  C) equilibrium
  D) modeling

 

 

50. A state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas is called “_____.”
  A) social learning
  B) conflict resolution
  C) cognitive equilibrium
  D) information processing

 

 

51. Jenny has never seen a pear before today. As her mom hands it to her, she says that it is a fruit. Jenny knows that apples and bananas are fruits and that she likes eating them, so she has a reference for this new experience. Jenny is experiencing _____.
  A) social learning
  B) operant conditioning
  C) guided participation
  D) cognitive equilibrium

 

 

52. According to Piaget, when new experiences are interpreted to fit into old ideas, it is called “_____.”
  A) learning
  B) assimilation
  C) equilibrium
  D) accommodation

 

 

53. Sanjay has a small dog at home, so he knows about dogs. He is walking down the street and sees an animal walking toward him. The animal is very large; has four legs, fur, and a tail; and is barking. Sanjay knows that these are characteristics of a dog, given his knowledge of dogs. He quickly concludes that this animal is a dog. This example illustrates Piaget’s concept of “_____.”
  A) operations
  B) assimilation
  C) equilibrium
  D) accommodation

 

 

54. According to Piaget, when old ideas are restructured to include new experiences, it is called “_____.”
  A) learning
  B) assimilation
  C) equilibrium
  D) accommodation

 

 

55. Sally has a dog at home, so she knows about dogs. She is walking down the street and sees an animal walking toward her. The animal has four legs, fur, and a tail. Sally knows that these are characteristics of dogs. But the animal coming toward her is meowing, not barking. Sally’s mom tells her that the animal is a cat. Now when Sally sees an animal with four legs, a tail, and fur, she will conclude it is a dog if it barks and a cat if it meows, illustrating Piaget’s concept of “_____.”
  A) operations
  B) assimilation
  C) equilibrium
  D) accommodation

 

 

56. With respect to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the more difficult cognitive adaptation is _____.
  A) assimilation
  B) accommodation
  C) sensorimotor behavior
  D) equilibrium

 

 

57. _____ is a perspective that compares a human’s thinking processes, by analogy, to a computer’s analysis of data.
  A) Social learning theory
  B) Information-processing theory
  C) Behaviorism
  D) Psychoanalytic theory

 

 

58. Within the information-processing perspective, which is the correct sequential order for producing cognition?
  A) The brain produces an output; input is picked up by the five senses; the brain reacts, connects, and stores memories.
  B) The brain reacts, connects, and stores memories; input is picked up by the five senses; the brain produces an output.
  C) Input is picked up by the five senses; the brain produces an output; the brain reacts, connects, and stores memories.
  D) Input is picked up by the five senses; the brain reacts, connects, and stores memories; the brain produces an output.

 

 

59. Antonia has always had a difficult time remembering things. She visited a psychologist and underwent tests that concluded that the way she senses input and then stores the information is interfering with her ability to recall the information. This explanation for Antonia’s memory difficulties is consistent with _____ theory.
  A) psychoanalytic
  B) evolutionary
  C) social learning
  D) information-processing

 

 

60. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many scientists believed that bumps on the head reflected intelligence and character, a theory known as _____.
  A) neurology
  B) phrenology
  C) anthropology
  D) ethology

 

 

61. The _____ measures electrical activity in the cortex.
  A) EEG
  B) ERP
  C) MRI
  D) fMRI

 

 

62. Dr. House is a neurologist who evaluates individuals who have experienced brain injuries or have suspected brain damage. Dr. House often has his patients undergo testing that allows measurement of myelin, neurons, and fluid in the brain. Dr. House utilizes _____ with his patients.
  A) PET
  B) DTI
  C) EEG
  D) MRI

 

 

63. Which of the following neuroimaging techniques is almost impossible to use with children?
  A) fMRI
  B) EEG
  C) PET
  D) fNIRS

 

 

64. Baby Elijah is participating in a study in which scientists are examining areas of the brain that are activated when they are exposed to music, speech, and random noise. This test, called _____, requires the individual to be fitted with a special cap connected to electrodes.
  A) fNIRS
  B) DTI
  C) fMRI
  D) PET

 

 

65. _____ is a test that is used by clinicians who want to individualize treatment and monitor progress.
  A) PET
  B) DTI
  C) fNIRS
  D) ERP

 

 

66. Neuroscientists have discovered that the _____ is not completely connected to the rest of the brain until about age 25.
  A) hippocampus
  B) prefrontal cortex
  C) amygdala
  D) brain stem

 

 

67. Newer theories, unlike grand theories, are multicultural and multidisciplinary. _____ theory, for example, draws on anthropology.
  A) Psychoanalytic
  B) Information-processing
  C) Evolutionary
  D) Sociocultural

 

 

68. The idea that human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society is the central thesis of _____ theory.
  A) information-processing
  B) sociocultural
  C) evolutionary
  D) cognitive

 

 

69. Which cognitive theorist emphasized the cultural context?
  A) Piaget
  B) Vygotsky
  C) Maslow
  D) Erikson

 

 

70. Vygotsky used the term _____ to describe how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society.
  A) zone of proximal development
  B) guided participation
  C) apprenticeship in thinking
  D) selective adaptation

 

 

71. Vygotsky used the term _____ to describe the method used by parents, teachers, and entire societies to teach novices the skills and habits expected within their culture.
  A) zone of proximal development
  B) guided participation
  C) apprenticeship in thinking
  D) selective adaptation

 

 

72. Sally is helping her mom make a cake. Her mom helps her pick out the right ingredients, measure them, and mix them together. According to Vygotsky, Sally is engaging in _____.
  A) modeling
  B) guided participation
  C) operant conditioning
  D) selective adaptation

 

 

73. According to Vygotsky, the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the learner is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help is referred to as “_____.”
  A) the zone of proximal development
  B) guided participation
  C) operant conditioning
  D) selective adaptation

 

 

74. According to Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development, a mentor must avoid two opposite dangers: _____.
  A) fear and anger
  B) boredom and failure
  C) shame and doubt
  D) competition and punishment

 

 

75. Sociocultural theory is _____.
  A) active
  B) passive
  C) unidirectional
  D) outdated

 

 

76. Approaches to toilet training have changed over time. At one point, it was suggested to parents to postpone toilet training until the child was at least a year old to avoid serious personality problems later on. This view is most consistent with _____.
  A) psychoanalytic theory
  B) cognitive theory
  C) behaviorism
  D) information-processing theory

 

 

77. Approaches to toilet training have changed over time. At one point, it was suggested that parents toilet-train whenever they wished, using reinforcement as part of the training. This view is most consistent with _____.
  A) psychoanalytic theory
  B) cognitive theory
  C) behaviorism
  D) information-processing theory

 

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